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Mali profile
landlocked;

divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese;

the central, semiarid Sahelian;

and the northern, arid Saharan
Mali history
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low-mid level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. Democratic elections are scheduled for mid-2013.
interesting Mali facts
Conventional long form: Republic of Mali

Conventional short form: Mali

Local long form: Republique de Mali

Local short form: Lubnan

Formerly known as: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
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Mali's capital city is Bamako
amazing Mali facts
Mali Constitution:

adopted 12 January 1992
Mali facts for kids
Mali population growth rate: 3.02%
Mali facts for kids
Mali highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
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Mali lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
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About 4% of Mali's land is arable.
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Mali birth rate is 47 births/1,000 population
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Mali infant mortality rate is 109 deaths/1,000 live births
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Mali fertility rate is 6.25 children born/woman
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Mali climate:

subtropical to arid;
hot and dry (February to June);
rainy, humid, and mild (June to November);
cool and dry (November to February)
interesting Mali facts
Top 10 cities of Mali with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Bamako: 1,297,281
2. Sikasso: 144,786
3. Mopti: 108,456
4. Koutiala: 99,353
5. Kayes Ndi: 97,464
6. S├ęgou: 92,552
7. Gao: 87,000
8. Kayes: 78,406
9. Morkala: 53,738
10. Kolokani: 48,774
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Mali ethnic groups:

Mande - 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke)
Peul - 17%
Voltaic - 12%
Songhai - 6%
Tuareg and Moor - 10%
other - 5%
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Mali Exports:

cotton,
gold,
livestock
interesting Mali facts
Mali Imports:

petroleum,
machinery and equipment,
construction materials,
foodstuffs,
textiles
interesting Mali facts
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region).
1. Gao
2. Kayes
3. Kidal
4. Koulikoro
5. Mopti
6. Segou
7. Sikasso
8. Tombouctou (Timbuktu)

and 1 district: District de Bamako
Political parties and leaders:
African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence (SADI) - Oumar MARIKO, secretary general
Alliance for Democracy (ADEMA) - Diounconda TRAORE
Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP) (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region)
Convergence 2007 - Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA
Convergence for the development of Mali (CODEM) - Housseyni GUINDO
Front for Democracy and the Republic (FDR) (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
National Congress for Democratic Initiative (CNID) - Mountaga TALL
Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP) - Mady KONATE
Party for National Renewal (PARENA) - Tiebile DRAME
Patriotic Movement for Renewal (MPR) - Choguel MAIGA
Rally for Democracy and Labor (RDT) - Amadou Ali NIANGADOU
Rally for Mali (RPM) - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA
Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally (US/RDA) - Mamadou Basir GOLOGO
Union for Democracy and Development (UDD) - Moussa Balla COULIBALY
Union for Republic and Democracy (URD) - Soumaila CISSE